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Sn-2-monoacylglycerol, not glycerol, is preferentially utilised for triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) intestine
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Dr Anthony Oxley
Oxley A, Jutfelt F, Sundell K, Olsen RE
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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Pathways of lipid resynthesis in the intestine of fish are relatively unknown. Various reports have suggested the existence of both sn-1,3-specific (pancreatic) and non-specific (bile salt-activated) lipase activity operating on dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) in the intestinal lumen of fish during digestion. Thus, sn-2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) and glycerol, respective hydrolytic products of each lipase, are absorbed and utilised for glycerolipid synthesis in enterocytes via two alternative routes: monoacylglycerol (MAG) and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) pathways. Despite different precursors, both pathways converge at the production of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) where TAG or phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis can occur. To elucidate the relative activities of MAG and G3P pathways in Atlantic salmon enterocytes, intestinal segments were mounted in Ussing chambers where equimolar mixtures of sn-2-oleoyl-[1,2,3-3H]glycerol (2-MAG) and [14C(U)]glycerol, plus unlabelled 16:0 and 18:2n-6 as exogenous fatty acid sources, were delivered in bile salt-containing Ringer solution to the mucosa. The MAG pathway predominated, over the G3P pathway, synthesizing ca. 95% of total TAG and ca. 80% of total PC after a 3 h incubation period at 10 °C. Further, the 1,2-DAG branch point into TAG or PC was polarised towards TAG synthesis (6:1) via the MAG pathway but more evenly distributed between TAG and PC (1:1) via the G3P pathway. Effect of long-chain saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesized TAG/PC ratio was assessed by individually exchanging 16:0, 18:1n-9 or 18:2n-6, for 16:0 + 18:2n-6, in mucosal solutions. TAG synthesis was influenced considerably more than PC synthesis, via either pathway, by exogenous fatty acids utilised. 18:1n-9 significantly stimulated TAG synthesis via the MAG pathway yielding a TAG/PC ratio of 12:1. Alternatively, 18:2n-6 stimulated TAG synthesis the most via the G3P pathway (TAG/PC = 4:1). 16:0 significantly attenuated TAG synthesis via either pathway. Micellar fatty acid species also significantly affected intestinal active transport mechanisms as shown by decreasing transepithelial potential (TEP) and short-circuit current (SSC) with increasing fatty acid unsaturation. The epithelial integrity was, however, not compromised after 3 h of exposure to any of the fatty acids. The implications of these findings on dietary fatty acid composition and enterocytic lipid droplet accumulation are discussed.
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