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‘"Involuntary Self-employment" as a public policy issue: A cross-country EU comparison’
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Dr Teemu Kautonen
Dr Simon Down
Kautonen T, Down S, Welter F, Vainio P, Althoff K, Kantola J, Kolb S
International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research
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Purpose â€“ There is growing political interest in new forms of precarious self-employment located in a â€œgrey areaâ€ between employment and self-employment. A wide range of concepts has been used to debate this issue, and this paper aims to clarify these debates through the concept of involuntary self-employment.
Design/methodology/approach â€“ The paper reviews the empirical, conceptual and legal-policy approaches to involuntary self-employment via three country case studies in Finland, Germany and the UK. A range of relevant domestic academic literature, articles in the media, selected key expert interviews, and policy and legal documents are employed.
Findings â€“ Conceptual clarity regarding involuntary self-employment is achieved through a discussion of two aspects of the phenomenon: the characteristics of involuntariness from a motives-based perspective, and the legal/economic perspectives and policy issues. The motives-based analysis argues that involuntariness as such does not seem to have severe implications on the individuals' well being, given that the individual earns a satisfactory livelihood from her or his business activities. The discussion of the characteristics of and regulation related to working arrangements in the â€œgrey areaâ€ between employment and self-employment, where the self-employed individual is strongly dependent on the principal, shows that it is very difficult to regulate quasi self-employment without harming â€œvoluntaryâ€ forms of enterprise and inter-firm cooperation at the same time.
Originality/value â€“ The key contribution of the paper is to facilitate a foundation for subsequent empirical research and policy development.
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