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Toward reconciling instantaneous roadside measurements of light duty vehicle exhaust emissions with type approval driving cycles
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Professor Margaret Carol Bell CBE
Rhys-Tyler GA, Bell MC
Environmental Science & Technology
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A method is proposed to relate essentially instantaneous roadside measurements of vehicle exhaust emissions, with emission results generated over a type approval driving cycle. An urban remote sensing dataset collected in 2008 is used to define the dynamic relationship between vehicle specific power and exhaust emissions, across a range of vehicle ages, engine capacities, and fuel types. The New European Driving Cycle is synthesized from the remote sensing data using vehicle specific power to characterize engine load, and the results compared with official published emissions data from vehicle type approval tests over the same driving cycle. Mean carbon monoxide emissions from petrol cars ≤3 years old measured using remote sensing are found to be 1.3 times higher than published original type approval test values; this factor increases to 2.2 for cars 4 – 8 years old, and 6.4 for cars 9 – 12 years old. The corresponding factors for diesel cars are 1.1, 1.4, and 1.2 respectively. Results for nitric oxide, hydrocarbons and particulate matter are also reported. The findings have potential implications for the design of traffic management interventions aimed at reducing emissions, fleet inspection and maintenance programs, and the specification of vehicle emission models.
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