The case of the monarch butterfly: a verdict is returned

  1. Lookup NU author(s)
  2. Professor Angharad MR Gatehouse
  3. Dr Natalie Ferry
  4. Romaan Jan Maria Raemaekers
Author(s)Gatehouse AM, Ferry N, Raemaekers RJM
Publication type Article
JournalTrends in Genetics
ISSN (print)0168-9525
ISSN (electronic)1362-4555
Full text is available for this publication:
A publication reporting the harmful effects on the monarch butterfly of maize genetically modified to express insecticidal delta-endotoxins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) caused much public interest. A series of ecologically based studies were subsequently carried out to evaluate rigorously the impact of pollen from such crops and to quantify the risks. The results demonstrated that the commercial large-scale cultivation of current Bt-maize hybrids did not pose a significant risk to the monarch population. Further studies also demonstrated that Bt-expressing crops posed little risk to other nontarget insects, including beneficial insects such as pollinators and natural enemies.
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
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