Lookup NU author(s): Dr Neil Ross
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Pingos are ice-cored mounds or hills developed in permafrost. Two forms are identified, closed system (or hydrostatic) pingos and open system (or hydraulic) pingos. The former occur in lowland settings within the continuous permafrost zone, and the latter are more common in valley bottom and footslope localities in both discontinuous and continuous permafrost. Related smaller ground ice phenomena associated with permafrost regions are lithalsas, mineral palsas, and seasonal ground ice mounds. Relict pingos and other ground ice mounds formed during Quaternary cold stages may be indicated by circular or ovate depressions, often surrounded by raised rampart-like rims.
Author(s): Harris C, Ross N
Editor(s): Elias S.A.
Publication type: Book Chapter
Publication status: Published
Book Title: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science
Edition: 1st ed.
Place Published: Amsterdam
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