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Development of a Preclinical Orthotopic Xenograft Model of Ewing Sarcoma and Other Human Malignant Bone Disease Using Advanced In Vivo Imaging

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Britta Vormoor, Henrike Knizia, Michael Batey, Dr Petra Dildey, Abhishek Sharma, Dr Helen Blair, Dr Geoff Hide, Professor Olaf Heidenreich, Professor Josef Vormoor, Dr Ross Maxwell, Dr Christopher Bacon

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Abstract

Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma represent the two most common primary bone tumours in childhood and adolescence, with bone metastases being the most adverse prognostic factor. In prostate cancer, osseous metastasis poses a major clinical challenge. We developed a preclinical orthotopic model of Ewing sarcoma, reflecting the biology of the tumour-bone interactions in human disease and allowing in vivo monitoring of disease progression, and compared this with models of osteosarcoma and prostate carcinoma. Human tumour cell lines were transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NSG) and Rag2(-/-) gamma c(-/-) mice by intrafemoral injection. For Ewing sarcoma, minimal cell numbers (1000-5000) injected in small volumes were able to induce orthotopic tumour growth. Tumour progression was studied using positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescent imaging. Tumours and their interactions with bones were examined by histology. Each tumour induced bone destruction and outgrowth of extramedullary tumour masses, together with characteristic changes in bone that were well visualised by computed tomography, which correlated with post-mortem histology. Ewing sarcoma and, to a lesser extent, osteosarcoma cells induced prominent reactive new bone formation. Osteosarcoma cells produced osteoid and mineralised "malignant'' bone within the tumour mass itself. Injection of prostate carcinoma cells led to osteoclast-driven osteolytic lesions. Bioluminescent imaging of Ewing sarcoma xenografts allowed easy and rapid monitoring of tumour growth and detection of tumour dissemination to lungs, liver and bone. Magnetic resonance imaging proved useful for monitoring soft tissue tumour growth and volume. Positron emission tomography proved to be of limited use in this model. Overall, we have developed an orthotopic in vivo model for Ewing sarcoma and other primary and secondary human bone malignancies, which resemble the human disease. We have shown the utility of small animal bioimaging for tracking disease progression, making this model a useful assay for preclinical drug testing.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Vormoor B, Knizia HK, Batey MA, Almeida GS, Wilson I, Dildey P, Sharma A, Blair H, Hide IG, Heidenreich O, Vormoor J, Maxwell RJ, Bacon CM

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: PLoS One

Year: 2014

Volume: 9

Issue: 1

Print publication date: 07/01/2014

Acceptance date: 20/11/2013

ISSN (electronic): 1932-6203

Publisher: Public Library of Science

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085128

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085128


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