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Mechanistic insight into the reaction catalysed by bacterial type II dehydroquinases

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Heather Lamb, Professor Alastair Hawkins

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Abstract

DHQ2 (type II dehydroquinase), which is an essential enzyme in Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and does not have any counterpart in humans, is recognized to be an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents. Computational and biochemical studies that help understand in atomic detail the catalytic mechanism of these bacterial enzymes are reported in the present paper. A previously unknown key role of certain conserved residues of these enzymes, as well as the structural changes responsible for triggering the release of the product from the active site, were identified. Asp(89)*/Asp(88)* from a neighbouring enzyme subunit proved to be the residue responsible for the deprotonation of the essential tyrosine to afford the catalytic tyrosinate, which triggers the enzymatic process. The essentiality of this residue is supported by results from site-directed mutagenesis. For H. pylori DHQ2, this reaction takes place through the assistance of a water molecule, whereas for M. tuberculosis DHQ2, the tyrosine is directly deprotonated by the aspartate residue. The participation of a water molecule in this deprotonation reaction is supported by solvent isotope effects and proton inventory studies. MD simulation studies provide details of the required motions for the catalytic turnover, which provides a complete overview of the catalytic cycle. The product is expelled from the active site by the essential arginine residue and after a large conformational change of a loop containing two conserved arginine residues (Arg(109)/Arg(108) and Arg(113)/Arg(112)), which reveals a previously unknown key role for these residues. The present study highlights the key role of the aspartate residue whose blockage could be useful in the rational design of inhibitors and the mechanistic differences between both enzymes.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Coderch C, Lence E, Peon A, Lamb H, Hawkins AR, Gago F, Gonzalez-Bello C

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Biochemical Journal

Year: 2014

Volume: 458

Issue: 3

Pages: 547-557

Print publication date: 07/01/2014

ISSN (print): 0264-6021

ISSN (electronic): 1470-8728

Publisher: Portland Press

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20131103

DOI: 10.1042/BJ20131103


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