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Inorganic Nitrate and Beetroot Juice Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mario Siervo, Professor John Mathers

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Abstract

Diets including food products rich in inorganic nitrate are associated with lower blood pressure (BP). The evidence for the BP-lowering effects of inorganic nitrate and beetroot in randomized clinical trials has not been systematically assessed. The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials that examined the effects of inorganic nitrate and beetroot supplementation on BP. Medline, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched from inception to February 2013. The specific inclusion criteria were: 1) randomized clinical trials; 2) trials reporting effects on systolic or diastolic BP or both; and 3) trials comparing inorganic nitrate or beetroot juice supplementation with placebo control groups. Random-effects models were used to assess the pooled BP effect sizes. Sixteen trials met the eligibility criteria for the systematic review. All studies had a crossover study design. The trials were conducted between 2006 and 2012 and included a total of 254 participants with 7-30 participants/study. The duration of each intervention ranged from 2 h to 15 d. Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice consumption were associated with greater changes in systolic BP [-4.4 mm Hg (95% CI: 5.9, 2.8); P < 0.001] than diastolic BP [-1.1 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.2, 0.1); P = 0.06]. The meta-regression showed an association between daily dose of inorganic nitrate and changes in systolic BP (P < 0.05). Inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in systolic BP. These findings need to be tested in long-term trials and in individuals at greater cardiovascular risk.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Siervo M, Lara J, Ogbonmwan I, Mathers JC

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Nutrition

Year: 2013

Volume: 143

Issue: 6

Pages: 818-826

Print publication date: 01/06/2013

Online publication date: 17/04/2013

Acceptance date: 28/02/2013

ISSN (print): 0022-3166

ISSN (electronic): 1541-6100

Publisher: AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.170233

DOI: 10.3945/jn.112.170233


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