Lookup NU author(s): Professor Mark Walker,
Professor Michael Trenell,
Professor James Shaw
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OBJECTIVETo examine the influence of the glycemic index (GI) of foods consumed after evening exercise on postprandial glycemia, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and nocturnal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSOn two evenings (similar to 1700 h), 10 male patients (27 +/- 5 years of age, HbA(1c) 6.7 +/- 0.7% [49.9 +/- 8.1 mmol/mol]) were administered a 25% rapid-acting insulin dose with a carbohydrate bolus 60 min before 45 min of treadmill running. At 60 min postexercise, patients were administered a 50% rapid-acting insulin dose with one of two isoenergetic meals (1.0 g carbohdyrate/kg body mass [ BM]) matched for macronutrient content but of either low GI (LGI) or high GI (HGI). At 180 min postmeal, the LGI group ingested an LGI snack and the HGI group an HGI snack (0.4 g carbohdyrate/kg BM) before returning home (similar to 2300 h). Interval samples were analyzed for blood glucose and lactate; plasma glucagon, epinephrine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha); and serum insulin, cortisol, nonesterified fatty acid, and w beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Interstitial glucose was recorded for 20 h postlaboratory attendance through continuous glucose monitoring.RESULTSFollowing the postexercise meal, an HGI snack induced hyperglycemia in all patients (mean 6 SD glucose 13.5 +/- 3.3 mmol/L) and marked increases in TNF-a and IL-6, whereas relative euglycemia was maintained with an LGI snack (7.7 +/- 2.5 mmol/L, P < 0.001) without inflammatory cytokine elevation. Both meal types protected all patients from early hypoglycemia. Overnight glycemia was comparable, with a similar incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia (n = 5 for both HGI and LGI).CONCLUSIONSConsuming LGI food with a reduced rapid-acting insulin dose following evening exercise prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and inflammation and provides hypoglycemia protection for similar to 8 h postexercise; however, the risk of late nocturnal hypoglycemia remains.
Author(s): Campbell MD, Walker M, Trenell MI, Stevenson EJ, Turner D, Bracken RM, Shaw JA, West DJ
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Diabetes Care
Print publication date: 01/07/2014
Online publication date: 01/05/2014
Acceptance date: 18/03/2014
ISSN (print): 0149-5992
ISSN (electronic): 1935-5548
Publisher: American Diabetes Association
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