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Is Obesity Associated with Altered Energy Expenditure?

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mario Siervo, Dr Carla Prado

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Abstract

Historically, obese individuals were believed to have lower energy expenditure (EE) rates than nonobese individuals (normal and overweight), which, in the long term, would contribute to a positive energy balance and subsequent weight gain. The aim of this review was to critically appraise studies that compared measures of EE and its components, resting EE (REE), activity EE (AEE), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), in obese and nonobese adults to elucidate whether obesity is associated with altered EE. Contrary to popular belief, research has shown that obese individuals have higher absolute REE and total EE. When body composition (namely the metabolically active component, fat-free mass) is taken into account, these differences between obese and nonobese individuals disappear, suggesting that EE in obese individuals is not altered. However, an important question is whether AEE is lower in obese individuals because of a decrease in overall physical activity or because of less energy expended while performing physical activity. AEE and DIT could be reduced in obese individuals, mostly because of unhealthy behavior (low physical activity, higher intake of fat). However, the current evidence does not support the hypothesis that obesity is sustained by lower daily EE or REE. Future studies, comparing EE between obese and nonobese and assessing potential physiologic abnormalities in obese individuals, should be able to better answer the question of whether these individuals have altered energy metabolism.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Carneiro IP, Elliott SA, Siervo M, Padwal R, Bertoli S, Battezzati A, Prado CM

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Advances in Nutrition

Year: 2016

Volume: 7

Issue: 3

Pages: 476-487

Print publication date: 01/05/2016

Acceptance date: 01/01/1900

ISSN (print): 2161-8313

ISSN (electronic): 2156-5376

Publisher: AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/an.115.008755

DOI: 10.3945/an.115.008755


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