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Calorie restriction and not glucagon-like peptide-1 explains the acute improvement in glucose control after gastric bypass in Type 2 diabetes

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Sarah Steven, Dr Kieren Hollingsworth, Dr Benjamin Aribisala, Dr Ahmad Al-Mrabeh, Professor Roy Taylor

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Abstract

AimsTo compare directly the impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion on glucose metabolism in individuals with Type 2 diabetes listed for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, randomized to be studied before and 7 days after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or after following a very-low-calorie diet.MethodsA semi-solid meal test was used to investigate glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 response. Insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose and arginine stimulus was measured. Hepatic and pancreatic fat content was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging.ResultsThe decrease in fat mass was almost identical in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and the very-low-calorie diet groups (3.00.3 and 3.00.7kg). The early rise in plasma glucose level and in acute insulin secretion were greater after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass than after a very-low-calorie diet; however, the early rise in glucagon-like peptide-1 was disproportionately greater (sevenfold) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass than after a very-low-calorie diet. This did not translate into a greater improvement in fasting glucose level or area under the curve for glucose. The reduction in liver fat was greater after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (29.83.7 vs 18.64.0%) and the relationships between weight loss and reduction in liver fat differed between the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group and the very-low-calorie diet group.ConclusionsThis study shows that gastroenterostomy increases the rate of nutrient absorption, bringing about a commensurately rapid rise in insulin level; however, there was no association with the large post-meal rise in glucagon-like peptide-1, and post-meal glucose homeostasis was similar in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and very-low-calorie diet groups. (Clinical trials registry number: ISRCTN11969319.)


Publication metadata

Author(s): Steven S, Hollingsworth KG, Small PK, Woodcock SA, Pucci A, Aribasala B, Al-Mrabeh A, Batterham RL, Taylor R

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Diabetic Medicine

Year: 2016

Volume: 33

Issue: 12

Pages: 1723-1731

Print publication date: 01/12/2016

Online publication date: 08/10/2016

Acceptance date: 31/08/2016

Date deposited: 28/12/2016

ISSN (print): 0742-3071

ISSN (electronic): 1464-5491

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dme.13257

DOI: 10.1111/dme.13257


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