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A prospective study on the natural history of patients with profound combined immunodeficiency: An interim analysis

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Andrew Cant, Dr Andrew Gennery, Professor Sophie Hambleton

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Abstract

© 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Background: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and atypical SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. Objectives: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. Methods: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. Results: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of atypical SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. Conclusions: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Speckmann C, Doerken S, Aiuti A, Albert MH, Al-Herz W, Allende LM, Scarselli A, Avcin T, Perez-Becker R, Cancrini C, Cant A, Di Cesare S, Finocchi A, Fischer A, Gaspar HB, Ghosh S, Gennery A, Gilmour K, Gonzalez-Granado LI, Martinez-Gallo M, Hambleton S, Hauck F, Hoenig M, Moshous D, Neven B, Niehues T, Notarangelo L, Picard C, Rieber N, Schulz A, Schwarz K, Seidel MG, Soler-Palacin P, Stepensky P, Strahm B, Vraetz T, Warnatz K, Winterhalter C, Worth A, Fuchs S, Uhlmann A, Ehl S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Year: 2015

Volume: 139

Issue: 4

Pages: 1302-1310.e4

Print publication date: 01/04/2017

Online publication date: 19/09/2016

Acceptance date: 28/07/2016

ISSN (print): 0091-6749

ISSN (electronic): 1097-6825

Publisher: Elsevier

URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.07.040

DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.07.040


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