Lookup NU author(s): Dr Stevin Pramana
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This paper describes the crystallochemical mechanisms that underpin the migration of nano-size alumina, intermetallic growth and phase transformations in Au-Al wire bonds during annealing from 175 °C to 250 °C by utilizing high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Alumina, encapsulated within the Au-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs), migrates towards the Au ball during annealing, with Au diffusion into the Al pad. The sequence of Au-Al IMC phase development during annealing was investigated. Initially, Au 8Al3 appears as a third phase between the Au4Al and AuAl2 layers that form during bonding, and gradually becomes the dominant compound. Both AuAl2 and Au8Al3 are transformed into the Au-rich alloyAu4Al when Al is completely consumed, and this is the terminal product. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Author(s): Xu H, Liu C, Silberschmidt VV, Pramana SS, White TJ, Chen Z, Acoff VL
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Print publication date: 01/12/2011
Online publication date: 28/08/2011
ISSN (print): 0966-9795
ISSN (electronic): 1879-0216
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