Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mario Siervo
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© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association. Exercise is an effective intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle combines multiple signals that contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health. Inorganic nitrate increases exercise efficiency, tolerance, and performance. The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator 1a (PGC1a) coordinates the exercise-stimulated skeletal muscle fiber-Type switch from glycolytic fast-Twitch (type IIb) to oxidative slow-Twitch (type I) and intermediate (type IIa) fibers, an effect reversed in insulin resistance and diabetes. We found that nitrate induces PGC1a expression and a switch toward type I and IIa fibers in rat muscle and myotubes in vitro. Nitrate induces the release of exercise/PGC1a-dependent myokine FNDC5/ irisin and b-Aminoisobutyric acid from myotubes and muscle in rats and humans. Both exercise and nitrate stimulated PGC1a-mediated g-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) secretion from muscle. Circulating GABA concentrations were increased in exercising mice and nitrate-Treated rats and humans; thus, GABA may function as an exercise/PGC1a-mediated myokine-like small molecule. Moreover, nitrate increased circulating growth hormone levels in humans and rodents. Nitrate induces physiological responses that mimic exercise training and may underlie the beneficial effects of this metabolite on exercise and cardiometabolic health.
Author(s): Roberts LD, Ashmore T, McNally BD, Murfitt SA, Fernandez BO, Feelisch M, Lindsay R, Siervo M, Williams EA, Murray AJ, Griffin JL
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Print publication date: 01/03/2017
Online publication date: 27/12/2016
Acceptance date: 18/12/2016
ISSN (print): 0012-1797
ISSN (electronic): 1939-327X
Publisher: American Diabetes Association Inc.
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