Lookup NU author(s): Dr Anastasia Hepburn,
Dr Rakesh Heer
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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018. Cancer stem cells are defined as a self-renewing and self-protecting subpopulation of cancer cells able to differentiate into morphologically and functionally diverse cancer cells with a limited lifespan. To purify cancer stem cells, two basic approaches can be applied, the marker-based approach employing various more of less-specific cell surface marker molecules and a marker-free approach largely based on various self-protection mechanisms. Within the context of urothelial carcinoma, both methods could find use. The cell surface markers have been mainly derived from the urothelial basal cell, a probable cell of origin of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma, with CD14, CD44, CD90, and 67LR representing successful examples of this strategy. The marker-free approaches involve side population sorting, for which a detailed protocol is provided, as well as the Aldefluor assay, which rely on a specific overexpression of efflux pumps or the detoxification enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively, in stem cells. These assays have been applied to both non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer samples and cell lines. Urothelial carcinoma stem cells feature a pronounced heterogeneity as to their molecular stemness mechanisms. Several aspects of urothelial cancer stem cell biology could enter translational development rather soon, e.g., a specific CD44+-derived gene expression signature able to identify non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with a high risk of progression, or deciphering a mechanism responsible for repopulating activity of urothelial carcinoma stem cells within the context of therapeutic resistance.
Author(s): Hatina J, Parmar HS, Kripnerova M, Hepburn A, Heer R
Editor(s): Schulz, WA; Hoffmann, MJ; Niegisch, G
Publication type: Book Chapter
Publication status: Published
Book Title: Urothelial Carcinoma: Methods and Protocols
Online publication date: 10/09/2017
Acceptance date: 02/04/2016
Series Title: Methods in Molecular Biology
Publisher: Humana Press Inc.
Place Published: New York
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