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β-synuclein aggregates and induces neurodegeneration in dopaminergic neurons

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Tiago Outeiro

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Abstract

Objective Whereas the contribution of α-synuclein to neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease is well accepted, the putative impact of its close homologue, β-synuclein, is enigmatic. β-Synuclein is widely expressed throughout the central nervous system, as is α-synuclein, but the physiological functions of both proteins remain unknown. Recent findings have supported the view that β-synuclein can act as an ameliorating regulator of α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity, having neuroprotective rather than neurodegenerative capabilities, and being nonaggregating due to the absence of most of the aggregation-promoting NAC domain. However, a mutation of β-synuclein linked to dementia with Lewy bodies rendered the protein neurotoxic in transgenic mice, and fibrillation of β-synuclein has been demonstrated in vitro. Methods Neurotoxicity and aggregation properties of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein were comparatively elucidated in the rat nigro-striatal projection and in cultured neurons. Results Supporting the hypothesis that β-synuclein can act as a neurodegeneration-inducing factor, we demonstrated that wild-type β-synuclein is neurotoxic for cultured primary neurons. Furthermore, β-synuclein formed proteinase K-resistant aggregates in dopaminergic neurons in vivo, leading to pronounced and progressive neurodegeneration in rats. Expression of β-synuclein caused mitochondrial fragmentation, but this fragmentation did not render mitochondria nonfunctional in terms of ion handling and respiration even at late stages of neurodegeneration. A comparison of the neurodegenerative effects induced by α-, β-, and γ-synuclein revealed that β-synuclein was eventually as neurotoxic as α-synuclein for nigral dopaminergic neurons, whereas γ-synuclein proved to be nontoxic and had very low aggregation propensity. Interpretation Our results suggest that the role of β-synuclein as a putative modulator of neuropathology in aggregopathies like Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies needs to be revisited. © 2013 American Neurological Association.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Taschenberger G, Toloe J, Tereshchenko J, Akerboom J, Wales P, Benz R, Becker S, Outeiro TF, Looger LL, Bahr M, Zweckstetter M, Kugler S

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: Annals of Neurology

Year: 2013

Volume: 74

Issue: 1

Pages: 109-118

Print publication date: 01/07/2013

Online publication date: 28/03/2013

ISSN (print): 0364-5134

ISSN (electronic): 1531-8249

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.23905

DOI: 10.1002/ana.23905

PubMed id: 23536356


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