Lookup NU author(s): Dr Mike Althaus
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a critical regulator of vertebrate electrolyte homeostasis. ENaC is the only constitutively open ion channel in the degenerin/ENaC protein family, and its expression, membrane abundance, and open probability therefore are tightly controlled. The canonical ENaC is composed of three subunits (α, β and γ), but a fourth δ-subunit may replace α and form atypical δβγ-ENaCs. Using Xenopus laevis as a model, here we found that mRNAs of the α- and δ-subunits are differentially expressed in different tissues and that δ-ENaC predominantly is present in the urogenital tract. Using whole-cell and single-channel electrophysiology of oocytes expressing Xenopus αβγ- or δβγ-ENaC, we demonstrate that the presence of the δ-subunit enhances the amount of current generated by ENaC due to an increased open probability, but also changes current into a transient form. Activity of canonical ENaCs is critically dependent on proteolytic processing of the α- and γ-subunits, and immunoblotting with epitope-tagged ENaC subunits indicated that, unlike α-ENaC, the δ-subunit does not undergo proteolytic maturation by the endogenous protease furin. Furthermore, currents generated by δβγ-ENaC were insensitive to activation by extracellular chymotrypsin, and presence of the δ-subunit prevented cleavage of γ-ENaC at the cell surface. Our findings suggest that subunit composition constitutes an additional level of ENaC regulation, and we propose that the Xenopus δ-ENaC subunit represents a functional example that demonstrates the importance of proteolytic maturation during ENaC evolution.
Author(s): Wichmann L, Vowinkel KS, Perniss A, Manzini I, Althaus M
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Print publication date: 04/05/2018
Online publication date: 25/03/2018
Acceptance date: 25/03/2018
Date deposited: 26/03/2018
ISSN (print): 0021-9258
ISSN (electronic): 1083-351X
Publisher: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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