Lookup NU author(s): Dr Alexandra Battersby,
Professor Mark Pearce,
Dr Andrew Gennery
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).
X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (XL-CGD), a rare primary immunodeficiency due to a defect in the gp91phox NADPH oxidase subunit, results in recurrent, severe infection, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Patients have an absent, or significantly reduced, neutrophil oxidative burst. Due to lyonization, XL-CGD carriers have a dual population of functional and non-functional phagocytes and experience a range of symptoms including increased risk of autoimmunity, fatigue, and infection. Patients with CGD have poorer quality of life (QoL) than normal controls. We evaluated QoL and psychological health in UK XL-CGD carriers. Recruited participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36 V2), providing an overall score for mental and physical health. Psychological health was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Seventy-five XL-CGD carriers were recruited from 62 families, median age 43 years (range 3–77). Fifty-six were mothers, 6 grandmothers, and 13 siblings. Sixty-two completed the SF36v2 and had reduced QoL scores compared with adult CGD patients and a UK age-matched female control cohort, indicating a reduced QoL. Sixty-one completed a HADS questionnaire. Over 40% experienced moderate or greater levels of anxiety with only one third being classified as normal. Higher anxiety scores significantly correlated with higher depression scores, lower self-esteem, presence of joint or bowel symptoms, and higher levels of fatigue (p<0.05). This is the first study to evaluate QoL of XL-CGD carriers, and demonstrates high rates of anxiety and significantly reduced QoL scores. XL-CGD carriers should be considered as potential patients and pro-actively assessed and managed.
Author(s): Battersby AC, Braggins H, Pearce MS, McKendrick F, Campbell M, Burns S, Cale CM, Goldblatt D, Gennery AR
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Pages: ePub ahead of Print
Online publication date: 13/03/2019
Acceptance date: 25/02/2019
ISSN (print): 0271-9142
ISSN (electronic): 1573-2592
Publisher: Springer US
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