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Outcomes in Patients with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Treated with Eculizumab in a Long-term Observational Study

Lookup NU author(s): Professor Neil Sheerin

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Abstract

Background: There are limited long-term outcome data in eculizumab-treated patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). We report final results from the largest prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with aHUS treated with eculizumab.Methods: Patients with aHUS who participated in any of five parent eculizumab trials and received at least one eculizumab infusion were eligible for enrollment in a long-term follow-up study. Rates of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) manifestations off versus on eculizumab were evaluated. Additional endpoints included change from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), long-term renal outcomes, and serious targeted treatment-emergent adverse events.Results: Among 93 patients (0-80 years of age), 51 (55%) remained on eculizumab and 42 (45%) discontinued; for those who discontinued, 21 (50%) reinitiated therapy. Patients who reinitiated eculizumab had similar baseline clinical characteristics to patients who remained on eculizumab, with higher likelihood of genetic/autoimmune complement abnormalities, more prior TMAs, and longer disease course versus those who did not reinitiate therapy. Mean eGFR improved rapidly and remained stable for up to 6 years on eculizumab. In patients who discontinued, there was a trend toward decreasing renal function over time from discontinuation. Additionally, off-treatment TMA manifestation rates were higher in those aged <18 years at diagnosis, with identified genetic/autoimmune complement abnormalities, or history of multiple TMAs prior to eculizumab initiation. The safety profile was consistent with previous studies. Three definite and one possible meningococcal infections related to eculizumab were reported and resolved with treatment, and three deaths unrelated to eculizumab were reported.Conclusions: The current study confirms the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in aHUS, particularly with regard to long-term renal function and TMA events. Pediatric age at disease onset and presence of genetic or autoimmune complement abnormalities are risk factors for TMA events off treatment. Overall, patients who discontinue eculizumab may be at risk for additional TMA manifestations and decreases in renal function. Discontinuation of eculizumab, with careful monitoring, is an option in select patients with consideration of patient preference, organ function normalization, and risk factors for relapse, including mutational analysis, age of onset, and history of multiple episodes of TMA.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Menne J, Delmas Y, Fakhouri F, Licht C, Lommelé A, Minetti EE, Provôt F, Rondeau E, Sheerin NS, Wang J, Weekers LE, Greenbaum LA

Publication type: Article

Publication status: Published

Journal: BMC Nephrology

Year: 2019

Volume: 20

Online publication date: 10/04/2019

Acceptance date: 27/03/2019

ISSN (electronic): 1471-2369

Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd

URL: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1314-1

DOI: 10.1186/s12882-019-1314-1


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