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Differences in circulating appetite-related hormone concentrations between younger and older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Lookup NU author(s): Dr Oliver Shannon

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).


Abstract

© 2019, The Author(s).Ageing is associated with reduced appetite and energy intakes. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not fully understood. This systematic review and meta-analysis quantified differences in circulating concentrations of appetite-related hormones between healthy older and younger adults. Six databases were searched through 12th June 2018 for studies that compared appetite-related hormone concentrations between older and younger adults. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis and are presented as standardised mean difference (Hedges’ g) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Thirty-five studies were included involving 710 older adults (mean ± SD; age: 73 ± 5 years) and 713 younger adults (age: 28 ± 7 years). Compared with younger adults, older adults exhibited higher fasted and postprandial concentrations of the anorectic hormones cholecystokinin (Fasted: SMD 0.41 (95% CI 0.24, 0.57); p < 0.001. Postprandial: SMD 0.41 (0.20, 0.62); p < 0.001), leptin [Fasted: SMD 1.23 (0.15, 2.30); p = 0.025. Postprandial: SMD 0.62 (0.23, 1.01); p = 0.002] and insulin [Fasted: SMD 0.24 (− 0.02, 0.50); p = 0.073. Postprandial: SMD 0.16 (0.01, 0.32); p = 0.043]. Higher postprandial concentrations of peptide-YY were also observed in older adults compared with younger adults [SMD 0.31 (− 0.03, 0.65); p = 0.075]. Compared with younger adults, older adults had lower energy intakes [SMD − 0.98 (− 1.74, − 0.22); p = 0.011], and lower hunger perceptions in the fasted [SMD − 1.00 (− 1.54, − 0.46); p < 0.001] and postprandial states [SMD − 0.31, (− 0.64, 0.02); p = 0.064]. Higher circulating concentrations of insulin, leptin, cholecystokinin and peptide-YY accord with reduced appetite and energy intakes in healthy older adults. Interventions to reduce circulating levels of these hormones may be beneficial for combatting the anorexia of ageing.


Publication metadata

Author(s): Johnson KO, Shannon OM, Matu J, Holliday A, Ispoglou T, Deighton K

Publication type: Review

Publication status: Published

Journal: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

Year: 2019

Pages: epub ahead of print

Online publication date: 20/08/2019

Acceptance date: 23/07/2019

ISSN (print): 1594-0667

ISSN (electronic): 1720-8319

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01292-6

DOI: 10.1007/s40520-019-01292-6


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