Lookup NU author(s): Dr Kathryn Manzo
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This article draws on academic writings in international relations and development studies and on primary research conducted in India. Three particular nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) discussed in the article are the Pan-Himalayan Grassroots Foundation (PHGF), Development Alternatives (DA), and Lokayan. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the idea of a singular model of NGO development (sometimes called alternative or people-centered development), as well as the factors that account for existing similarities and differences among NGOs. The article shows that NGOs can share the same political ideals (such as empowerment of the poor) yet vary widely in how they theorize and operationalize development. It is important, therefore, to distinguish the unity exhibited in collective opposition to conventional development from the diversity of alternative philosophies and approaches. In conclusion, the article summarizes the main findings and draws broader lessons about ambiguity and contradiction from the Indian case studies.
Author(s): Manzo K
Publication type: Article
Publication status: Published
Journal: Journal of Environment and Development
Print publication date: 01/01/2000
ISSN (print): 1070-4965
ISSN (electronic): 1552-5465
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